Constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic
|Constitution of 2012
|DATE OF PROMULGATION
|Adopted by referendum on February 27, 2012
- Islamic jurisprudence is considered a primary source of legislation.
- Legislative authority is vested in the People’s Assembly, which is comprised of 250 members representing the various provinces and who are elected every four years.
- Executive authority is vested in the President of the Republic who is elected every seven years, and the Council of Ministers.
- In addition to other conditions, the President must be a member of the Muslim faith; have attained the age of 40 years before assuming office; and must have permanently resided in Syria for 10 continuous years at the time he announces his nomination for the presidency.
- The President also has the authority to assume legislative authority in various instances.
- The Council of Ministers is headed by the Prime Minister who, along with the ministers, is appointed by the President of the Republic.
- The judicial branch is overseen by the Supreme Judicial Council, which is headed by the President of the Republic and the Minister of Justice, who serves as his deputy.
- The Supreme Constitutional Court rules on the constitutionality of legislation; overseas the presidential election, particularly since it reviews candidacy applications; hears electoral disputes arising from the presidential and parliamentary elections; and it has jurisdiction over the President of the Republic if he is accused of criminal offences.
- The principle of political pluralism is officially adopted thereby revoking the Baath Party’s status as the leader of state and society.
- In terms of economic policy, the roles of both the public and private sectors in achieving economic growth are formally adopted.
- The Constitution of 2012 replaces the Constitution of 1973.
- Other previous constitutions were drafted in 1920, 1928, 1930, 1950, 1953 and 1958.
- Presidential, parliamentary and local council elections are held in accordance with the Electoral Law 5/2014.
- Political parties are governed by Legislative Decree 100/2011.
- The powers of the Supreme Constitutional Court are contained in Law 7/2014.
- The Constitution of 2012 was officially adopted by a referendum held amidst the background of internal unrest in Syria that started in 2011, which precipitated its drafting.